Forest management of a 60 year old Siberian larch plantation in Hallormsstaður Forest. Photo: Pétur HalldórssonA mini-conference will be held in Iceland 5-7 October 2021 in conjunction with the Final Meeting of the Nordic/Baltic CAR-ES network. Various topics of forest management will be discussed in the context of carbon sequestration, functional biodiversity, water quality and soil quality.

On-line and in situ in Iceland 5-7 October 2021

Conference venue: Hótel Hallormsstaður in East-Iceland, situated in the heart of Hallormsstaður National Forest, managed by the Icelandic Forest Service.

COVID-19 Travel Information


Vaccinated or previously infected with COVID?

You must show

  • proof of vaccination prior to boarding a vessel on your way to Iceland (you will need to present it at the border)
  • a negative test (PCR or rapid antigen) taken within 72 hours of departure. Important note: Self-tests are not accepted.


Not vaccinated, and not with antibodies?

You must 

  • show a negative PCR test before boarding an aircraft to Iceland, taken within 72 hours of departure. Important notes: Rapid antigen tests and self-tests are not accepted
  • undergo a COVID-19 test upon arrival at Keflavik airport, followed by 5 days of quarantine, then a second test.


Further information can be found at the following websites:

The key topics that CAR-ES has been addressing



October 5-7 2021

On-line links - Authors - Titles - Short Abstracts

Session 1 - Forest soils
5 Oct 12:00-15:00 CET / 10:00-12:10 GMT


Chair. Dr. Edda S. Oddsdóttir, Icelandic Forest Service


Speakers and Titles

1. Raija Laiho et al.
Environmental services from Nordic-Baltic forests – research progress during the past 5 years
Raija Laiho and the CAR-ES team.

CAR-ES network has aimed to provide the best knowledge for informed decision-making on forest management concerning continued carbon sequestration, provision of clean water and maintenance of soil quality and functional soil biota in the Nordic-Baltic area. How have we fared?

2. Nicholas Clarke et al.
Effects of intensive biomass harvesting on forest soils in the Nordic countries and the UK: A meta-analysis.

Clarke, N., Kiær, L.P., Janne Kjønaas, O., Bárcena, T.G., Vesterdal, L., Stupak, I., Finér, L., Jacobson, S., Armolaitis, K., Lazdina, D., Stefánsdóttir, H.M., Sigurdsson, B.D.

There appeared to be greater reductions in nutrient concentrations, soil organic carbon and total nitrogen after whole-tree harvesting (WTH) compared with stem-only harvesting (SOH) in northern European temperate and boreal forest soils. Effects were greater in the forest floor than in the mineral soil, and greater in the topsoil than the subsoil. Spruce- and pine-dominated stands had for most elements comparable negative relative responses in the forest floor. There appeared to be greater effects of WTH relative to SOH in a warmer climate. The differences between effects of different harvest types in the forest floor and topsoil were generally reduced with time but were likely to last for several decades.

3. Lars Vesterdal et al.
Carbon stock change in Danish forest soils since 1990 as evidenced by two repeated soil inventory networks.

Lars Vesterdal, Inge Stupak, Ingeborg Callesen, Lise Dalsgaard.

National GHG accounting related to forest soil C stock change is usually based on repeated soil inventory information or empirical modelling. In Denmark, changes in forest soil C stocks are assessed based on repeated inventories within two monitoring networks. One network (KN, 126 plots, 7x7 km) was originally intended for monitoring of nitrate leaching from all land uses, but was sampled three times (1990, 2008, 2018) for soil C. The other soil network (NFI, 288 plots) was established as a subset of the National Forest Inventory (2x2 km) and sampled in 2009 and 2019. Based on the results from the KN and NFI networks we discuss the challenges related to older soil sampling networks established with aims other than SOC stock monitoring. We will also report on development of pedotransfer functions for estimation of bulk density and functions for estimation of forest floor C stock based on forest floor depth, species and soil type.

4. Lise Dalsgaard et al.
Modelled and measured soil carbon dynamics after afforestation of croplands in Denmark.

Lise Dalsgaard, Inge Stupak, Lars Vesterdal.

Afforestation is applied as a tool for sequestration of atmospheric carbon and mitigation of climate change, but it is costly and time consuming to quantify the impact by measurement. This study examined the opportunities to use Yasso17 to model changes in soil carbon (C) after afforestation of cropland. Best available knowledge on agricultural and forest input of organic matter to soils was used for model initialization and simulations, respectively, for 21 sites in Denmark. C stocks measured at three points in time in 10-year intervals were used for model validation. We found substantial deviations between modelled and measured soil C stocks, with larger deviations for the development in absolute C stocks than for C stock changes between measurements.

5. Iveta Varnagirytė-Kabašinskienė et al.
Assessment of soil organic carbon stocks in different land use in Lithuania.

Iveta Varnagirytė-Kabašinskienė, Kęstutis Armolaitis, Povilas Žemaitis & Vidas Stakėnas.

The study on SOC stocks in mineral and organic soils in forest land, perennial grassland, and cropland, determined by analyzing eight WRB Reference Soil Groups, will be presented.

6. Ivika Ostonen et al.
What is the best method to measure fine root production - comparison of ingrowth core, ingrowth mesh and minirhizotron methods in northern coniferous forests.

Is there a more accurate method for measuring fine root production or does the methodology affect the result? We compare the results 1) of three methods, of what at least two are used in the same forests sites in parallel, 2) of two ingrowth mesh campaigns carried out in the same sites in 4-5 years, 3) of fine root production temporal dynamic in hemiboreal and boreal forests.

7. Páll Sigurðsson et al.
Soil warming effects on fine-root turnover in a mature Sitka-spruce forest in southern Iceland.

Páll Sigurðsson, Ivika Ostonen, Edda S. Oddsdóttir, Bjarni D. Sigurdsson

Soil warming affects qualitative and quantitative parameters of forest fine roots. On the example of a middle-aged Sitka-spruce forest in Iceland we show how fine root biomass decreases, and fine root turnover increases by soil warming, thus making a difference in belowground litter input.

8. Ilze Kārkliņa
Forest fertilization impact on soil and soil water quality.

The study aims to estimate the impact of wood ash and N containing mineral fertilizer on soil and soil water. The focus will be on soil organic carbon stock, chemistry of soil and the results of four-year soil water monitoring.

9. Ingeborg Callesen et al.
Soil texture analysis by laser diffraction – method and instrument comparison with a focus on forest soils in boreal and temperate climate.

Callesen, I., M. Palviainen, M., O. Janne Kjønaas, K. Armolaitis, C. Rasmussen.

Comparison of particle size distributions from three laboratories applying their own operating procedures and laser diffraction instruments on a set of soil samples from boreal and temperate forest soils.

10. Tuula Larmola et al.
Advancing soil information - reducing key uncertainties in greenhouse gas balances in forestry-drained peatlands.

Tuula Larmola, Paavo Ojanen, Joel Kostensalo, Leena Stenberg, Leila Korpela, Jukka Alm, Kari Minkkinen, Aleksi Lehtonen, Raisa Mäkipää.

Introducing a new project that develops methods to produce countrywide data and information on soil in Finland. A special emphasis is on drained peat soils, where comprehensive soil data will improve the accuracy and reliability of the national greenhouse gas inventory.

Session 2 - Peatland forests.
6 Oct 12:00-13:30 CET / 10:00-11:30 GMT


Chair. Dr. Tuula Larmola, Natural Resources Institute Finland (LUKE)


Speakers and Titles

1. Ari Laurén
Mathematical Tools for Holistic Planning of Peatland Management

2. Jyrki Jauhiainen et al.
Synthesizing data for more site specific drained organic forest soil GHG emission factors in boreal and cool temperate regions

We compiled peer-reviewed CO2, CH4 and N2O data that have potential to be used for estimating annual soil GHG balance, compatible with Tier 1 emission factors (EFs) in IPCC 2014 Wetlands assessment. We studied similarities and differences between the IPCC Tier 1 EFs and more site type specific EFs, potential sources of EF uncertainty, and GHG data correlation with climate, soil and vegetation characteristics.

3. Marjo Palviainen
Continuous cover forestry and novel water protection methods to mitigate environmental effects of forest management in peatlands

Palviainen, M., Peltomaa, E., Laurén, A., Kinnunen, N., Ojala, A., Pumpanen, J.

Our results suggest that continuous cover forestry reduces the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nutrients in watercourses and decreases DOC biodegradability and aquatic CO2 emissions compared to clear-cutting. Biochar was found to adsorb N from runoff water and it can be a complementary method supporting water purification in peatlands.

4. Brynhildur Bjarnadóttir et al.
Carbon and water balance of an afforested shallow drained peatland in Iceland

Brynhildur Bjarnadottir, Guler Aslan Sungur, Bjarni D. Sigurdsson, Bjarki T. Kjartansson, Hlynur Oskarsson, Edda S. Oddsdottir, Gunnhildur E. Gunnarsdottir & Andrew Black.

Afforestation of a drained peatland in Iceland, showed that the site was a large C-sink only 25 years after planting. Most of the NEP could be explained by the annual increase of the Black cottonwood trees. On average, 33% of the annual measured precipitation was estimated to have evaporated back to the atmosphere.

Session 3 - Environmental Policy and Biodiversity.
6 Oct 13:35-15:00 CET / 11:35-13:00 GMT


Chair. Dr. Zane Lībiete, Latvian State Forest Research Institute (Silava)


Speakers and Titles

1. Inge Stupak et al.
The role of science for creating trust and legitimacy of sustainability governance for bioenergy and the wider bioeconomy in the Nordic and Baltic countries

Inge Stupaka, Nicholas Clarke, Andis Lazdiņš, Iveta Kabašinskienė, Diana Lukminė, Dagnija Lazdiņa.

The amount of governance systems to ensure sustainable forest management and biomass has increased dramatically in the last decades, but crises persist over whether forest management operations are sustainable. This presentation explores the role of forest ecosystem science for designing effective and practical sustainability governance systems for forestry, bioenergy and the bioeconomy, as a basis for achieving social license to operate. It also discusses how such systems might develop in the future to mitigate possibly increasing pressures on the land as the bioeconomy develops.

2. Eva Ring
Developing strategic objectives for good environmental consideration within the Swedish forestry sector

A description of the dialogue process which has been going on for almost 10 years in Sweden, and an overview of the strategic objectives developed with respect to forest waters.

3. Janne Kjønaas
BalanC results, in a management/C stock and biodiversity perspective

4. Nicholas Clarke et al.
Managing sustainability risks of bioenergy

Nicholas Clarke, Anders Chr. Hansen, Atle Wehn Hegnes

Sustainability risks in the Nordic countries have been managed by developing an institutional framework involving laws, regulations, standards and community commitments. Particularly on the local level, bioenergy chains should be developed with stakeholder involvement in development and use, in order to safeguard the legitimacy of bioenergy development and reconcile tensions between the global quest for a climate neutral economy and the local quest for an economically viable community.

5. Jānis Ivanovs
The effect of tree species and seasonality on forest height measurements using an aerial laser scanner – a case study in Latvia

From 2013 to 2019, nationwide airborne laser scanning was performed in Latvia with a point density of at least 4 points per square meter. In combination with NFI plots, ALS data allow the development of accurate forest stand height models that can be used nationwide. In this study we developed forest stand height models, taking into account the composition of different tree species, the growing season and the ALS equipment used.

Session 4 - Climate Change and Forest Management.
7 Oct 12:00-14:30 CET / 10:00-12:30 GMT


Chair. prof. Bjarni D. Sigurdsson, Agricultural Univeristy of Iceland


Speakers and Titles

1. Lars Högbom:
Carbon in the Woods

Soils are the real long-term storage comparment for carbon in a forest ecosystem. The relative contribution of soils to carbon storage differs between soil types. However, due to a number of factors soil carbon is often neclected or the effects of foresst operations are set to 0+/- X when preforming a Life Cycle Assessement, leaving the biomass C-stocks as the sole factor when future mitigation potentials are estimated. The reason for this is that soil carbon is a complicated matter.

2. Jürgen Aosaar et al.:
Short term effect of pre-commercial thinning on the carbon budget of fertile birch stands in Estonia

Jürgen Aosaar & Mikko Buht.

In Nordic countries, pre-commercial thinning is a principal forest management practice for regulating stand density, species composition and improving stand growth and quality. In the current presentation, short-term results of thinnings in young fertile birch stands from the carbon cycling point of view are introduced.

3. Andis Lazdiņš:
GHG emissions in drained and pristine forested peatlands

Drained organic soils in forest lands are broadly advertised as significant source of GHG emissions; however, there are very little known, particularly in temperate climate zone, about GHG fluxes in pristine, non-drained organic soils in forests. In Latvia non-drained organic soils in forest land is nearly a half of total area of organic soils in forests; thus, there is significant potential of underestimation or overestimation of GHG emissions. Within the scope of this study we compared soil GHG fluxes in drained and pristine organic soils in forest and modeled total contribution of these forests to the net GHG emissions. Different coniferous and deciduous tree species and different age groups are compared. Soils in the studied stands represents nutrient rich peat. According to the study results it is found that drainage actually reduces GHG emissions from soil, in spite the soil remains source of GHG emissions after drainage; and significantly increases CO2 removals in living and dead biomass in long term. According to the study results drainage of forests with nutrient rich organic soils is efficient climate change mitigation measure with significant implementation potential.

4. Marili Sell et al.:
Fine root C exudation and respiration of early- and late-successional tree species in future climate

Marili Sell, Ivika Ostonen, Gristin Rohula-Okunev, Priit Kupper

We measured fine root carbon exudation and respiration rates in hybrid aspen, silver birch, Scots pine as early successional species, and linden and Norway spruce as late successional tree species. Saplings were grown separately in growth chamber in either moderate or elevated air humidity conditions and in different inorganic nitrogen sources (NO3- or NH4+). Root morphology effect on C exudation will be introduced.

5. Guna Petaja:
Vegetation dynamics in forests fertilized with wood ash and mineral fertilizers

Ground vegetation is an important yet often overlooked component of forest ecosystems and studies show that it may be affected as a result of wood ash and ammonium nitrate application. We compared species abundance, composition, richness and diversity in control and fertilized plots in forest stands of different site types and dominant tree species. Our results did not reveal a significant short-term impact, although there were slight shifts in species composition and diversity, e.g., certain nitrophilous species appeared/increased in abundance.

6. Arta Bārdule:
Agroforestry and shelter belts for climate change mitigation

Summary of information on ongoing research projects in Latvia on agroforestry and shelter belts as measures for climate change mitigation through CO2 sequestration in soils and living biomass of trees and herbaceous plants.

7. Leena Finér:
Importance of long-term monitoring of element fluxes from forests to surface waters

Ecosystem responses to forest management and environmental changes are often gradual and can be observed only by long-term monitoring. Long-term monitoring is important and at the same time also challenging. I will present, as an example, some results and experiences of long-term monitoring of stream water quality in forested catchments in Finland.

Organization committee

Bjarni D. Sigurðsson (

Brynhildur Bjarnadóttir (

Edda S. Oddsdóttir (

Scientific committee

FI = Tuula Larmola and Raija Laiho

SE = Eva Ring

NO = Nicholas Clarke

DK = Inge Stupak

EE = Ivika Ostonen

LT = Iveta Varnagirytė-Kabašinskienė

LV = Zane Lībiete

IS = Bjarni D. Sigurðsson

Format of presentations and important issues to consider

  • The talks will be given both in situ and on-line, for those who do not attend the meeting in Iceland.
  • The format will mainly be short talks (5 min) and only few talks are longer (10 min) or Key-note talks (15 min). Conference chairs will be instructed to be very strict on the times!
  • Talks given at the CAR-ES conference will be recorded (as they are given) and made available on the conference homepage for interested colleagues/stakeholders for a certain time after the conference (e.g. 6 months). If you don’t feel comfortable with this plan, please notify the scientific committee a.s.a.p.

Possible corrections of the author list or talk descriptions should be sent to


Agenda for those who take part in the in situ meeting in Iceland

Domestic flights booked for all who arrive to Iceland:

FI 070 04OCT RKV-EGS 17:55 - 18:55

FI 071 07OCT EGS - RKV 19:25 - 20:25

Practical issues - Timetable

Meeting costs in situ (e.g. hotel and some other costs) that Icelanders will not cover? Ad interim, AUI will cover all local costs (excl. international flights). Bills will be sent afterwards to the institutes recieving CAR-ES grants to split joint costs.

Your domestic flights need to be paid now. AUI will confirm and pay – but if you don’t show up, you will be billed for the costs anyhow, given that reimbursement from Icelandair proves impossible.

4 Oct - Mon

5 Oct -Tue

6 Oct - Wed

7 Oct - Thur

8 Oct - Fri

Arrival day to Iceland




Departure day from Reykjavik

Arrive no later than 15:15 to Iceland

CAR-ES meeting 

CAR-ES meeting 

CAR-ES meeting 


17:00 GMT
Meet at the DOMESTIC airport in Reykjavik

Departure 17:55


Dinner at hotel


The hybrid conference
Part I

13:00-14:00 Lunch

Excursion I: Mörkin



The hybrid conference
Part II

13:00-14:00 Lunch

Excursion II: LT-project and other research sites

20:00 Dinner


The hybrid conference

Part III

12:30-13:30 Lunch


Excursion to Fljótsdalur

Visit to Icelandic Forest Service in Egilsstaðir

17:30 Dinner at Salt Restaurant

Departure Egilsstaðir-Reykjavik 19:25

Addition for those interested: Volcano excursion from Reykjavik w. field-lunch

We will organize this so you can depart after 15:00

View over Hótel Hallormsstaður and the Hallormsstaður National Forest in East-Iceland. Photo: Hótel Hallormsstaður